Things to know about Federalism: Para naman di Tayo Eengot-engot at Basta lang “Mayma” sa Social Media
Federalism as a form of government for the Philippines was endorsed as early as Emilio Aguinaldo and Apolinario Mabini. The initial goal was to make the Philippines politically divided into three federal states, i.e. Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.
Fast-forward. Unang pinanggigilan ni propesor Jose Abueva ng University of the Philippines ang konsepto ng Federalism na nagsabing ang federal form of government ay kailangan para matugunan ang mga pangangailangan ng mamamayan sa gitna ng pagkakaiba-iba ng mga Filipino sa kultura, paniniwala at kaugalian.
Bukod kay Abueva, si Senator Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. ay isa ring prominent supporter ng federalism simula pa nung 2001. He sees the proposed system as a key component in alleviating the Mindanao crisis at mapapa-amo ang mga Moro insurgents. Kumbaga, may matinding pangangailangan na pahupain ang nagngangalit na mga aktuwalidad ng mga kapatid na Moro para sa kanilang “pagsasarili”. Pero teka, when I say pagsasarili, hindi ito ung pwede mong maisip na gawin kapag nag-iisa lang tayo sa kubeta.
Dibuho ni Joshua Rioja, Philippine Collegian
Ang Layunin ng Federalism
“The primary goal of a constitutional amendment in favor of federalism is to increase decentralization, greater local power and access to resources most especially among regions outside Metro Manila which has long been dubbed as rather Imperial Manila.”
Malaking aspeto ng pederalismo ang pagpapababa ng kapangyarihang makapamahala ang mga lungsod at siyudad natin, kasama na rin ang pagsasarili sa decision-making pagdating sa pag-gamit at pag-maximize sa mga natural na resources o yaman ng isang lungsod, nang walang masyadong panghihimasok ng national government, sa madaling salita…. ng Malacanang……
Kung hindi lalagyan ng malisya at masamang intensiyon, nakikita na may malaking potensiyal ang pagtatatag ng isang pederalistang gobyerno lalo na sa pagpapabilis ng paglago ng ekonomiya ng isang lungsod o probinsiya. Federalism is believed to facilitate economic development, considering that resources and finance will be under the discretion of each state or province, without too much intervention or constraint from the central government. Well, provided that our provincial and state leaders are genuinely free from corruption practices!
Subukan nating balikan kung sino-sino nga ba ang mga unang nagpakana at nag-isip na i-eksperimento ang konsepto ng pederalismo sa ating bansa. Isa-isahin natin.
Sino-sino ang nagpakana ng Federalism sa Pipinas? Lakbayin natin….
- Isinulong ni Senator Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. ang Joint Resolution No. 10, na magbabago sa 1987 constitution. Sa nasabing joint resolution, hahatiin ang bansa sa 11 na “autonomous regions” na magiging mga sento ng finance and development sa kapuluan. Sa ilalim ng naturng inisyatiba, ang bansa ay mahahati sa 11 na estado, at isang federal administrative region. (Wikipedia)
Hind sa akin ang litrato, mula sa internet
Sinasabi sa joint resolution ang ilang mga mungkahi sa pagpili ng pinuno gaya election of senators na nakabase sa state, pagkakaroon ng mga senators na-nagrere-present sa overseas voters at ang pagkakaroon ng state governor and vice-governor bilang isang team.
Sa panukala ding ito, tatanggalin ang Judicial and Bar Council na pumipili ng mga nominees para sa judiciary. Na naturang proposal, ang legislative department ay malilipat sa State of Central Visayas habang ang judiciary ay malilipat naman sa of Northern Luzon. Mananatiling nasa Federal Administrative Region of Metro Manila ang Executive Department.
Ang Pag-ayuda sa House Concurrent Resolution No. 15
Sa parehas ding taon, naglapag ng baraha si Rep. Monico O. Puentevella noong May 7, 2008. Isinusulong ni Puentebella ang House Concurrent Resolution No. 15, na sinusuportahan ang Senate Resolution No. 10 na kinatigan ng 16 na senators.
Hindi katulad ng Senate Resolution ni Senator Nene Pimentel, ang “Puentevella resolution” ay nagsusulong ng option na magsagawa ng isang constitutional convention, pero ii-etsapwera People’s Initiative na pamamaraan. (kanya-kanya na lang google sa Constitutional Convention at People’s Initiative, hahaba na masyado tong discussion).
Inaasahan na ang joint Senate resolution ay magiging daan para sa paglikha ng labing-isa (11) na federal states, sa pamamagitan ng pag-convene sa Congress bilang isang constituent assembly, para sa layuning i-revise ang 1987 Constitution patungo sa pagtatatag ng isang federal na gobyerno.
- Halos 15,000 katao ang nagtipon sa Makati para tutulan ang proposed charter amendment suggested by then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Tutol sila sa anila’y pag-endorso ni Arroyo sa naturang charter amendment, dahil maaaring maabuso nito ang ilang probisyon ng naturang batas para palawigin ang kanyang termino. Sad. Sa hiwalay na datos ng Pulse Asia (2006-2009), 42% ng mga respondents ay ayaw sa CHACHA ni GMA.
Eh sumingit ang Joint Resolution No. 10……..
Samantala, plano naman Joint Resolution No. 10 na baguhin o rebisahin ang Articles 14 at 18 ng 1987 Philippine Constitution at ang pagdadagdag ng dalawa pang bagong articles para pagtibayin ang federal presidential bicameral form of government.
The above resolution was supported by Senators Aquilino Q. Pimentel, Jr., Edgardo Angara, Rodolfo Biazon, Pia Cayetano, Juan Ponce Enrile, Francis “Chiz” Escudero, Jinggoy Estrada, Gregorio Honasan, Panfilo Lacson, Francis Pangilinan, Ramon “Bong” Revilla, Manuel “Manny” Villar). Hala ka.
- Mayor pa lang si Presidente Rodrigo Duterte ay nagka-kampanya na para sa federalism, na ayon sa kanya ay magpa-“facilitate better delivery of services to the people.” He also argued that the “distribution of public funds is disproportionately biased in favor of Manila”. And being a son of Mindanao himself, Duterte added that Federalism may be a key solution to address the problems in Mindanao, particularly ethno-religious conflicts.
It was also in this year that the Bangsamoro Basic Law was submitted by then President Benigno Aquino III to Congress in September 10, 2014. This further intensified various calls for Federalism, considering that this law, and its structure would prove for a better and more decentralized system of governance for the rest of the country. Hanggang sa sandaling ito, isina-alang-alang pa rin ang magiging kabutihan ng naturang batas, hindi lang sa “sangkatagalugan”, kundi maging sa ating mga kapatid na Muslim sa Mindanao, lalung-lalo na sa usapin ng kapayapaan.
Eto na, dito na umarangkada……
- President-elect Rodrigo Duterte revealed his plan of initiating a national plebiscite for Federalism, which he is vying to implement in 2 years time, so that would be this current year, 2018. Consistent din naman pala minsan ang Pangulo. Kaya noong December 2016, Duterte signed E.O. No. 10, creating a consultative committee to review the 1987 Constitution. Tanong: sino-sino ba ang napili para pag-aralan ang 1987 Constitution, tingin ko may pangalan yan, paki-google na lang. Paki-kilatis na din kung kanino sila alyado at sinu-sino naka-kabit na mga pangalan.
Na sinundutan nito ……
- The Alvarez proposal (Ang Mr. “S” ng Kongreso
In 2017, House Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez’s vision for a federal Philippines called for 14 states: 7 in Luzon, 2 in Visayas and 5 in Mindanao. He also proposed that the capital of the Philippines under a federal government should be somewhere in Negros island saying that it would be accessible to all people from the three island groups. Pero sabi ng ilang kritiko…weh, di nga?
Proposed states by House Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez (2017) ayon sa interpretasyon ng wikkipedia
Unnamed I.P. State (Igorot)
Unnamed Moro State (Sulu Archipelago)
Unnamed Moro State (Maguindanao / Lanao del Sur)
Unnamed I.P. State (Lumads)
- Bersiyon ng House Sub-Committee 1
Just recently, the Sub-Committee 1 of the House of Representatives Committee on Constitutional Amendments proposed that a federal Philippines would comprise of five states. Each states to be led by a premiere as its executive head will have a State Assembly according to the proposal. (Wikkipedia)
The proposal has been hit by massive criticism due to general lumping and a lack of representation. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism_in_the_Philippines#cite_note-27)
Samantala, nagsalita na rin ang 11 members ng Commission na gumawa ng 1987 Constitution, at sinasabing maraming mga katananungan ang dapat munang sagutin sa konteksto ng isinusulong na Federalism ng administrasyon.
Sinasabi ng mga gumawa ng 1987 Constitution ay makaka-gambala lamang para mag-concentrate tayo sa mga mas mahahalagang isyu ng lipunan, halimbawa, ang EJK, malawakang kahirapan, political dynasties at ang pagsasa-walang bahala sa rule of law.
Naninindigan ang mga miyembro ng Komisyon na ang present Constitution is not actually the real problem, sa halip ay part siya ng solution. Idinagdag pa nilang sapat na ang Local Government Code of the Philippines, para matiyak na maparating sa baba ang kapanyarihan at resources ng sentralisadong pamahalaan, amyendahan lanag ang ilang mga probisyon ng naturang batas.
Isa pang mahalagan isyu sa panukalang Pderalismo ay kung papaano magiging transparent ang buong proseso ng transition mula sa kasalukuyang kaayusan ng gobyerno. Mahalaga na dapat makuha ang tiwala ng mga Filipino sa mangunguna sa pagbabalangas ng Pederalismo upang maiwasan ang sinasabing “terra incognita” o isang paglalakbay na walang mapa.
Sa isang statement na ipinalabas sinasabi ng mga gumawa ng 1987 Constitution na ang kailangan ng bansa sa ngayon ay an pagpapalalim sa ating demokrasya, gawing mas makatarungan at para sa lahat ang ating ekonomiya, at mapanatiling narerespeto ang karapatan at kapayapaan ng nakararami.
Sama-samang pinirmahan ng mga arkitekto ng 1987 Constitution ang mga pahayag na ito; kasama sila Felicitas Aquino-Arroyo, Adolfo Azcuna, Teodoro Bacani, Florangel Rosario Braid, Hilario Davide Jr, Edmundo Garcia, Jose Luis Martin Gascon, Christian Monsod, Ricardo Romulo, Jaime Tadeo, and Bernardo Villegas.
Tumagos ba ang Pederalismo sa utak at puso Juan dela Cruz?
A Pulse Asia Survey for March 2018 would give us a hint on this. The said findings were part of Pulse Asia’s Ulat ng Bayan survey.
According to Pulse Asia, this survey was based on a sample of 1,200 representative adults 18 years old and older. The survey has a 3% margin of error at a 95% confidence level.
Sa nasabing survey, pinakita na 71% ng respondents ay kakaunti o walang nalalaman sa isinusulong na federal form of government.
Sa 71% na ito, 43% have little knowledge while 27% have almost no knowledge or knew nothing at all about the proposed system of government.
“Lack or absence of awareness is reported by most Filipinos across geographic areas and socio-economic classes (62% to 79% and 64% to 75%, respectively),” the Pulse Asia survey said.
“Big pluralities in most geographic areas and all socio-economic groupings (41% to 45% and 42% to 50%, respectively) have little knowledge while nearly the same percentages in the rest of Luzon have either little knowledge or almost no/no knowledge at all about the proposed federal system (45% versus 34%),” survey found. The survey also showed that about a third of its respondents believed they have a “great deal or sufficient amount of knowledge about the issue.” Another 22% told Pulse Asia that they had enough knowledge about the subject while only 7% claim “to know a great deal about the proposed federal system.
Based on geographic areas and socio-economic groupings, “sufficient knowledge levels vary from 14% to 34% and 21% and 32%, respectively.”
Those survey respondents who claimed to know a great deal about federalism ranged from as low as 1% to 18% and 4% and 8% respectively.
Based from the data above, it is obvious that a great deal of population needs a lot of explaining when it comes to federalism. Sure enough.
The Pulse Asia March 2018 Ulat ng Bayan Survey on Charter Change also showed that a sizable number of Filipinos were not in favor of changing the present system of government to a federal form.
The survey found that the “prevailing sentiment among Filipinos is one of opposition to replacing the present unitary system of government with a federal one.” About 66% of the survey respondents supported this view.
“Majority levels of opposition are posted in each geographic area and socio-economic class (54% to 75% and 60% to 71%, respectively),” the survey reported.
More than a third of survey respondents in Metro Manila and 40% of those in Mindanao were against the change of government “whether now or in the future.”
A similar percentage was reported for the rest of Luzon and the Visayas region.
IN FAVOR OR AMBIVALENT?
The survey found that those supportive of federalism accounted for 27% while 6% were ambivalent. “Levels of support range from 17% to 42% across geographic areas and from 25% to 36% in the different socio-economic classes,” the survey reported.
More survey respondents in Metro Manila, the Visayas region and Mindanao (33% to 42%) were found to be supportive of federalism “than in the rest of Luzon (17%).”
Those ambivalent or undecided were found to range from 25% to 9% and from 4% to 7% across geographic areas and socio-economic groupings, the Pulse Asia survey on the matter said.
The same survey also found that almost half (49%) of Filipinos who answered the survey were aware of proposals to change the 1987 Constitution while about one out of four survey respondents were in favor of changing the charter now.
The survey also reported that “majority levels of awareness” were posted in Metro Manila (52%), the rest of Luzon (56%), Class ABC (60%) and Class D (51%).
“In contrast, most of those in the Visayas (66%), Mindanao (53%), and Class E (65%) have not read, or watched anything about the recent charter change proposals in the country,” the Pulse Asia survey said. (See Table 1)
Pulse Asia found this significant because it showed that more Filipinos were more aware of the issue of charter change compared to a similar Pulse Asia survey which was conduced in July 2016. The 2016 survey reported only 41% of survey respondents were aware of what charter change was all about.
However, Pulse Asia added in its analysis, its survey for September and November 2014 on the charter change issue showed the highest level of awareness on the said issue was at 61%.
According to Pulse Asia, public support for charter change had declined during the period from July 2016 to March 2018 (minus 14 percentage points) while opposition became more pronounced (plus 20 percentage points).
Another significant finding of the survey was that three out of every four Filipinos or 75% of the survey respondents have little or no knowledge at all about the Philippine Constitution. Pulse Asia found that these numbers have remained constant since July 2016 to March 2018.
“Sizable to big majority figures are registered across geographic areas and economic classes (70% to 82% and 63% to 82%, respectively),” the survey reported.
“Of the total figure (75%), 42% report having little knowledge and 34% have almost none or no knowledge at all. Nearly to exactly half of Metro Manila (50%), Mindanawons (49%), and those in Class D (44%) have little knowledge while about the same percentages of those in the rest of Luzon, the Visayas, and Classes ABC and D have either little or almost none/no knowledge at all (31% to 44% versus 31% to 39%),” the survey said. (See Table 4).
As for the level of support for changing the Constitution, the Pulse Asia survey found that “public support for charter change now eases during the period July 2016 to March 2018 (minus 14 percentage points) while opposition becomes more pronounced (plus 20 percentage points).”
Pusle Asia said in its analysis that “similar movements occur in Metro Manila (minus 13 percentage points), the rest of Luzon (minus 15 percentage points), Mindanao (minus 23 percentage points), Class D (minus 15 percentage points), and Class E (minus 11 percentage points).”
“Opposition to charter change becomes more notable during tis period not only at the national level (plus 20 percentage points) but also in Metro Manila (plus 17 percentage points), the rest of Luzon (plus 29 percentage points), Mindanao (plus 22 percentage points), and Class D (plus 24 percentage points),” the survey added.
“In particular the percentage of Filipinos who are absolutely opposed to charter change (i.e., those against charter change now or at any other time), increases by 17 percentage points with similar movements occurring in Metro Manila (plus 17 percentage points), the rest of Luzon (plus 27 percentage point), Mindanao (plus 14 percentage points), Class D (plus 19 percentage points), and Class E (plus 16 percentage points). With respect to indecision, the only notable change between July 2016 to March 2018 occurs in the rest of Luzon (minus 13 percentage points).
Given the above, the final say rests on us, the taxpayers; as to how to respond to the seemingly facilitated and orchestrated (to some degree) developments for Charter Change leading to federalism. At the end of the day, we will judge our leaders, including the framers of Federalism, depending on the fate of this Nation 1-2 years hence. But prior to that, I think we still have ample time to do our assignments, and I think, we have to do it fast……